Alfred Werner

  • Barlach in America

    IN THE CASE OF THE GERMAN SCULPTOR and print-maker Ernst Barlach (1870–1938), the Biblical saying must be reversed: He is with honor in his own country, has been for the past fifty years, while he remained virtu­ally unknown in most places outside Germany. During the last few weeks, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his death was celebrated with exhibitions, memorial meet­ings, lengthy articles and the performance of some of his plays in both the Bonn Republic and in East Germany. Inevitably the tenor of the speeches dif­fered in the two Germanys: in the West, the emphasis was on the master’s

  • Born Before 1900

    A FEW SHOWS OF of New York City’s spring season had one feature in common: while the artists represented were born decades before the start of the present cen­tury, their work anticipated a great deal of what has become acceptable in painting or sculpture only dur­ing our own time. These fathers of modern art—to which must be added such mothers at Kaethe Kollwitz, and several “Blaue Reiter” ladies like Gabriele Münter, Nathalie Gontcharova and Marianna von We­refkin—had to contend with the attitudes of their contemporaries, ranging from dull indifference to ar­ticulate hostility, even more

  • Emil Nolde: A Demon of the Lower Realm

    THE GERMAN PAINTER AND PRINT-MAKER, Emil Nolde (1867–1956), whose work is currently touring several cities,* chronologically stands between Paul Gauguin, father of Symbolism, and Jean Dubuffet, inventor of “art brut,” to both of whom, in many respects, he has a significant affinity. Emil Hansen was born on his parents’ farm near the North Schleswig village of Nolde at the time when young Gauguin was about to join the French navy. By the time Gauguin had died at Atuana, Emil Hansen had become Emil Nolde and had achieved his own individual style. When Nolde passed away, as a very old man, Dubuffet