Jack Spector

  • Freud and Duchamp: The Mona Lisa “Exposed”

    CRITICISM OF THE MONA LISA over the past 4 1/2 centuries has been both voluminous and varied, but no phase of the long history of these opinions is more unusual than the period extending from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, and climaxing in the works of Freud and Duchamp with which this paper is mainly concerned. During this period critics most often indulged themselves in anecdotes either about the personality and expression of Mona Lisa, or about Leonardo’s relation to his model. Romantics like Gautier and Pater and Symbolists like Laforgue discovered and rediscovered the