PRINT Summer 1972

Feminism in the Arts: An Interim Bibliography

(Incomplete, but given the present lack of information on Russian, British, Swedish, Israeli, and other liberation movements, offered as a starting point for further studies. Ed.)

Albright Thomas, “Erotic Series—Female Version, San Francisco Chronicle, January 14, 1970, p. 47.
A facetious review of Eleanor Dickinson’s series of drawings entitled Isabel in Love. The writer protests the ”many studio poses involving a group of models whose male members have visible difficulty in getting very much aroused."

Alloway, Lawrence. “Art,” The Nation, March 27, 1972, pp. 413–414.
Describes the artistic and social importance of the exhibition of “13 Women Artists,” all members of the Women’s Ad Hoc Committee at 117–119 Prince Street: Loretta Dunkelman, Ann Marshall, Patsy Norvell, Paula Tavins, Helene Hui, Kazubo, Joyce Robins, Pat Lasch, Judy Waterman, Alice Adams, Mary Miss, Audrey Hemenway, Louise Bourgeois. Discusses the “unsettled argument about the position of women as artists and women as women artists.”

Art News. Special Issue: “Women’s Liberation, Wo-men Artists and Art History,” January, 1971.
History of women artists, personal statements and reproductions of work by women artists, feminist action in the art world. Articles:

Antin, Eleanor. “Women Without Pathos,” p. 45.
Antin cites the need for an interpretation of women as self-reliant creators.

Baker, Elizabeth C. “Sexual Art-Politics,” pp. 47–48.
Describes the institutional, social, and commercial barriers that handicap the careers of women artists and the surmounting of these difficulties - by younger women artists.

Benglis, Lynda. “Social Conditions Can Change,” p. 43.
Discusses the few outstanding female artists in the past as a social condition, not an esthetic one, and describes consciousness-raising as a means for transforming the problem today.

Castoro, Rosemarie. “Artists Transgress All Boundaries,” p. 45.
Personal account concerning the effect on her art of being labeled a woman artist.

Gablik, Suzi, “The Double Bind,” pp. 43–45.
A self-examination before women’s liberation through which Gablik passes in order to acknowledge the need for change.

de Kooning, Elaine. “Dialogue with Rosalyn Drexler,” pp. 40–41.
Discrimination by collectors, galleries, schools.

Nochlin, Linda. “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?,” pp. 22–39.
Probes the limitations of the discipline of art history and of the institutions of the art world and lucidly presents the case of women in the arts.

Strider, Marjorie. “Moving Out, Moving Up,” p. 41.
On being an artist.

Bailyn, Lotte. “Notes on the Role of Choice in the Psychology of Professional Women,” in The Woman in America, ed. by Robert Jay Lifton, Boston, 1964, pp. 236–247.
The revocable, irrational, and discontinuous difficulties that women who work face in their combination of disparate life roles. The Westbeth woman artist denied use of the community day-care center “because she works at home.”

Bettex-Cailler, Nane. “Suzanne Duchamp: ou la reussité de la liberté,” Cahiers d’art documents, no. 56, 1957, pp. 1–16.
Biography emphasizing the independence, courage, and originality of Suzanne Duchamp, with thorough documentation of expositions and bibliography.

Blum, June. “Love for Sale—$50,000,” New York Element: The Newspaper of Art and Politics, February–March, 1972, p. 4.
Describes the demands made by women that the Brooklyn Museum end its discriminatory practices.

Broun, Elizabeth, and Gabhart, Ann. “Old Mistresses: Women Artists of the Past,” The Walters Art Gallery Bulletin, April, 1972.
Art historical introduction to the exhibition.

Castanis, Muriel. “Behind Every Artist There’s a Penis,” Village Voice, March 19, 1970. Reprinted in A Documentary Herstory of Women Artists in Revolution, ed. by Jacqueline Skiles and Janet McDevitt, New York, 1971. (Museum, 729 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10003)
Women artists in revolt to effect drastic change to establish the interaction of sexes in art.

Dudek, Stephanie Z. “Portrait of the Artist as Rorschach Reader,” Psychology Today, May, 1971.
A misconception of the nature of artistic creativity, written by a woman, postulating that creativity is a male secondary sexual characteristic, the psychological equivalent to the act of childbearing which transforms the male artist into a symbolically complete man-woman.

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. “Encountering the Male Establishment: Sex-status Limits on Women’s Careers in the Professions,” American Journal of Sociology, 75, no. 6, 1970, p. 965.
The art world is no exception to the processes that act to limit women’s participation and achievement. Sex-status minimized under following conditions: 1) formality in professional context; 2) defined standards of performance; 3) flexibility of role-playing; 4) supervision of professional interaction; 5) length of career and length of professional relationships; 6) high rank of institution.

Erikson, Eric. “Inner and Outer Space: Reflections of Womanhood,” in The Woman in America, ed. by Robert Jay Litton, Boston, 1964, pp. 1–27.
Erikson postulates that women express themselves in terms of “a passive inner space.” Does not take into account consciousness-raising practices today that carry men and women beyond sex-differentiated styles.

Everywoman, ed. by Judy Chicago, May 7, 1971. Special issue on Feminist Art. (10438 W. Washington Blvd., Venice, California 90291)
Eleven personal accounts of women as artists—their consciousness, practical problems, and imagery—plus an interview concerning the first feminist program in California.

The Feminist Art Journal, ed. by Pat Mainardi, Irene Moss, and Cindy Nemser, April, 1972. (41 Montgomery Place, Brooklyn, New York 11215)
Formerly Women and Art. Included interview with Faith Ringgold, exposé of a well-known critic, articles on male chauvinist nudes, women at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Anne Whitney._

Fosca, François. “Femmes-peintres,” Formes et couleurs, 5, Lausanne, 1943.
Article on women artists from the origins of painting to modern-day France which concludes that the great male artists of the 18th century devoted their talents to the exaltation of women—an excuse for the limitations he places on women artists in their own right.

Glueck, Grace. “Women Artists Demonstrate at Whitney,” The New York Times, December 12, 1970. Reprinted in A Documentary Herstory of Women Artists in Revolution, ed. by Jacqueline Skiles and Janet McDevitt, New York, 1971, p. 41. (Museum, 729 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10003)
Begins by describing the women demonstrators as wearing red armbands and mentions in passing that the Whitney Museum’s 1970 Sculpture Annual contains 22 percent women as opposed to 51/2 to 10 percent in preceding annuals.

“The Ladies Flex Their Brushes,” The New York Times, May 30, 1971.
An account that means well on “26 Women Artists Show” organized by Lucy Lippard, and the Feminist Art Program taught by Miriam Schapiro and Judy Chicago.

“Museum Sex-Bias Case,” The New York Times, October 22, 1971. Reprinted in Women and Art, Winter, 1971, p. 11. (89 East Broadway, New York, 10002)

“No More Raw Eggs at the Whitney?,” The New York Times, February 13, 1972, p. 21.
Describes the “symposium-forum-conference-festival-exhibition-stage, building throughout the country” of the women’s movement in art, including: Women’s Interart, Womanhouse, W.E.B., Women in the Arts Festival, International Festival of Women’s Films, Conference of Women in the Visual Arts, and an all-woman film company.

“Winning the West,” The New York Times, April 16, 1972, p. 19.
Accomplishments of women artists on the West Coast include the Long Beach show of women artists, “Invisible-Visible,” and the establishment of the Feminist Art Program at the California Institute of the Arts.

Goldberg, Philip. “Are Women Prejudiced Against Women?,” Transaction, April, 1968, pp. 28–30.
This psychologist’s findings that both sexes have consistently valued men more highly than women in academia also hold true in the art world, where insecurity in the positions of women dealers, gallery owners, museum administrative staff, critics, and historians has also led to a reluctance to take women’s art work as seriously as men’s.

Groton, Connecticut. Censorship and Women’s Liberaation, May 26, 1971. Betty Dodson papers.
Statement on the censorship battle over Dodson’s - interview and art work in Evergreen, February, 1971.

Harris, Ann Sutherland. “Issues & Commentary: The Second Sex in Academe (Fine Arts Division),” forthcoming Art In America, May–June, 1972.
A concise summary of recent statistics on women who teach in studio and history of art departments, plus the proposed survey by the women’s caucus at the 1972 College Art Association Conference and their committee on the status of women including women artists, art historians, and museum professionals at all levels.

“The Second Sex in Academe,” American Association of University Professors Bulletin, Fall, 1970, pp. 283–295.
Describes widespread discriminatory practices and attitudes in institutions of higher education up to 1970, including lack of women in top faculty positions, hiring quotas, nepotism, higher grades for women’s admission to graduate schools, de facto and de jure discrimination within courses, and finally, recent government legislation to insure that women have equal rights and equal opportunities in the United States.

Hermant, Paul. “Les Femmes artistes d’Europe,” Le Figaro illustré, March, 1937, pp. 42–44, 50.
Review of an exposition of women’s art from 13 nations through four centuries organized by the International Committee of Fine Arts of the Federation of Business and Professional Women at the Jeu de Paume Museum in Paris in March, 1937. Mentions an earlier show of similar nature in Amsterdam in 1933 and in Warsaw in 1934. Discusses whether a women’s style in art exists.

Holland, Clive. “Lady Art Student’s Life in Paris,” International Studio, 21, 1904, pp. 225–233.
Article on the increasing numbers of women studying art in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century. Describes living quarters, social life, mixed art classes, and differences in work attitudes between men and women students.

Horner, Matina. “Women’s Need to Fail; A Bright Woman Is Caught in a Double Bind,” Psychology Today, 3, no. 6, p. 36.
Men in our society are actively encouraged to do well; while women cripple their own standards of performance so that success will not make them unpopular, unmarriageable, and lonely. This exploration of the basis for sex differences in achievement motivation may help to explain why, despite the majorities of women in art schools, few women have met with success as artists after their graduation.

Hughes, Robert. “Myths of Sensibility,” Time, March 20, 1972, pp. 72–77.
“Dying stereotypes, new vigor.”

Kalonyme, Louis. “Georgia O’Keeffe: A Woman in Painting,” Creative Art, January, 1928, pp. xxxv–xl.
A tribute to the female qualities of O’Keeffe’s painting. “. . . her way of looking at the world is unobstructed by the reports or rearrangements men painters have made of it, or by the adjustment women painters have made within the limits of those reports or rearrangements. O’Keeffe’s song is direct and affirmative, devoid of the feminine cringe and giggle. It is the song of a free woman, a shamelessly joyous avowal of what it is to be a woman in love. And so you see for the first time in paint form what the world we live in looks like to a woman.”

Keniston, Ellen and Kenneth. “An American Anachronism: The Image of Women at Work,” The American Scholar, Summer, 1964.
Many of the practical problems women face in asserting themselves beyond the confines of the family structure stem from those persisting archaic definitions of womanliness that place marriage and family before work.

Komarovsky, Mirra. “Cultural Contradictions and Sex Roles,” American Journal of Sociology, November, 1946, pp. 184–189.
The discussion also includes revealing quotes from women on the behavior they feel parents, teachers, and male friends expect of them.

Lippard, Lucy R. “Sexual Politics Art Style,” Art in America, September-October, 1971, p. 194.
The most thorough study to date of discrimination against women artists in the art world.

Maccoby, Eleanor. “Sex Differences in Intellectual Functioning,” in The Development of Sex Differences, ed. by Eleanor Maccoby, Stanford, California, 1960.
As they mature, girls and boys respond differently on tests of spatial ability, analytic ability, creativity, and achievement. The implications of perceptual differences may be useful in developing a feminist esthetic.

Merritt, Anna Lea. “A Letter to Artists: Especially Women Artists,” Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine, 65, 1900, pp. 463–469.
Call for further encouragement to women artists: “What we so strongly desire is a place in the large field: the kind ladies who wish to distinguish us as women would unthinkingly do us harm.”

Nemser, Cindy. “Analysis: Critics & Women’s Art,” in Women and Art, Winter, 1971, p. 14.
A form letter to 50 art critics and historians who were asked how they evaluated women’s art. They received 25 responses of which several were declarations of unbiased evaluation followed by expressions of bewilderment or indignation, contradictory statements that insisted on impartiality despite a prejudiced view on the nature of women’s art and criticism of the question itself, a few admissions that women artists are definitely handicapped by the discriminatory practices of the contemporary art world, and two attempts to relate the phenomena of gender to the phenomena of art.

“Art Criticism and Gender Prejudice,” Arts Magazine, March, 1972, pp. 44–46.
Discussion of masculine and feminine esthetics, concluding that both sexes partake of the characteristics ascribed to these concepts.

“Forum: Women in Art,” Art Magazine, February 1971. Reprinted in A Documentary Herstory of Women Artists in Revolution, ed. by Jacqueline Skiles and Janet McDevitt, New York, 1971. (Museum, 729 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10003)
Women artists state their feelings about the positions of women in the art world, recount experiences of discrimination and suggest reforms.

“Louise Nevelson on the New York Art Mafia,” Changes, May 1, 1972, pp. 1, 7–11.
Interview containing extensive discussion of feminist esthetics as related to Nevelson’s own work and the effects of discrimination and prejudice on her own life.

Phillips, Mary. “The Fine Art of Love-Making,” Evergreen Review, February, 1971, pp. 37–43. Interview with Betty Dodson.
A woman painter comments on sex and feminism in the context of her erotic art.

Rorem, Ned. “Woman: Artist or Artist-ess?,” Vogue, April 1, 1970, p. 172.
A piece of sensationalism, the subtitle of which reads “The female composer: an object of derision.” The first sentence states “The male of nearly all species is bigger, brighter, more eloquent than the female,” and the only integral quote is from the Story of O. His comment on women writing about other women, or reviewing their sister’s work is “unfair to themselves, since it calls forth their worst writing.”

Rossi, Alice. “Discrimination and Demography Restrict Opportunities for Academic Women,” College and University Business, February, 1970.
One article among an entire issue dedicated to the subject of woman’s changing role in academia. Rossi discusses the low motivation of qualified women and the jealousy felt by conservatives in academia when confronted with social change. An encouraging and realistic article for women artists who have been kept from or who have shied away from high academic posts.

Schwartz, Therese. “Women Speak Out at Brooklyn Museum,” New York Element: The Newspaper of Art and Politics, February–March, 1972, pp. 2–3, 14.
Excerpts from a speak-out organized by Pat Mainardi and Faith Ringgold on the actions by women artists against male domination in the art world.

Seligmann, Herbert, “Georgia O’Keeffe, American,” Manuscripts, March, 1923, p. 10.
A brief but fervent tribute to Georgia O’Keeffe’s “hitherto unattempted truths of a woman’s sensibility.”

Smith, Christine. “Rosa Bonheur: How She Was Victimized by (Male) Critics,” Women and Art, Winter, 1971, pp. 1, 4, 6, 20.
A feminist biography of Rosa Bonheur with bibliography.

Towson, Maryland. Goucher College. Identity and Expression: A Writing Course for Women, July, 1970. Florence Howe papers.
A method of teaching that centers on the self-directed development of expression through feminist consciousness.

Women: A Journal of Liberation. Special Issue: “In the Arts,” Fall, 1970. Articles:

Muller, Viana. “Liberating the Artists: Black Women Take Over,” pp. 46-47.
Faith Ringgold’s opposition to the Venice Biennale demanded that 50 percent of all group shows should be women, 50 percent of that black women, and 25 percent students.

Rizzo, Ann. “Handmaiden to the Arts,” p. 45.
Describes the socially acceptable roles of women in the current art world as being wife, patroness, or muse of male artists.

Shaw, Reesey, “Artists Today: A Conversation,” pp. 38–42.
An account of the difficulties in obtaining childcare while working as an artist followed by conversations with other women on discrimination from the art world and on the feminist nature of their art.

Women and Art, ed. by Marjorie Kramer, Pat Mainardi, and Irene Peslikis, Winter, 1971.
The most valid journalism concerning the women’s movement in art comes naturally from the heart of the struggle. Important articles on critics vs. women’s art; women artists’ actions against the Brooklyn Museum, the Whitney Museum, art schools, and Guggenheim awards; and the art of Rosa Bonheur and Alice Neel.

“Women Artists in Ascendence: Young Group Reflects Lively Virtues of U.S. Painting,” Life, May 13, 1957, pp. 74–77.
Full color, captioned photos of five women who “have won acclaim not as notable women artists but as notable artists who happen to be women.” (And who happen to have been herded together here to save room in Life for an overwhelmingly disproportionate number of articles on male artists.)

Women Artists’ International Liaison Network Newsletter.
Through W.E.B. representatives Ellen Lanyon, 412 North Clark St., Chicago, Illinois 60610; Sandra Harrison, 2 Milner Place, Islington, London N 1; Christiane Mobus, 315 Peine Ulmenstrasse, 17 W. Germany; Charlotte Townsend, Nova Scotia College of Art & Design, 6152 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. A means of communication between women artists to form a more cohesive front.

General Works:
Alesson, Jean. Les Femmes artistes au salon de 1878 et à l’exposition universelle. Paris, 1878.
An early detailed account of the women participating in the French salons, including statistics showing the increase of women participants over a period of time, and honors awarded.

Azar, Aimé. Femmes peintres d’Egypte. Cairo, 1953.
Describes without bias the work of nine Egyptian women artists.

de Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Translated and edited by H. H. Parshley, New York, 1952.
A study of woman, with insights into the problems of motivation for creative women. “When at last it will be possible for every human being thus to set his pride beyond the sexual differentiation, in the laborious glory of free existence, then only will woman be able to identify her personal history, her problems, her doubts, her hopes, with those of humanity; then only will she be able to seek in her life and her works to reveal the whole of reality and not merely her personal self. As long as she still has to struggle to become a human being, she cannot become a creator.” p. 672.

Bowes, Marie. Women Artists: A Directory and Bibliography of Women in the Visual Arts and Related Fields. Berkeley, California, 1971. (Women’s History, 2325 Oak Street, Berkeley, California 94708)
A courageous job done in haste on mimeograph paper with thousands of listings, forming an incomplete and sometimes inaccurate bibliography on women artists in history and a directory of those working today. An invaluable general reference work.

Bunoust, Madeleine. Quelques Femmes peintres. Paris, 1936.
Feminist introduction to a fine collection of photographs and biographies of French women artists with reproductions of their work.

Carter, Morris. Isabella Stewart Gardner and Fenway Court. 6th ed. Boston, 1963.
A factual, straightforward account by the first director appointed by the founder of the Gardner Muse, um. While her life is not discussed in terms of fem. inism, Isabella Gardner was a generous and free-spirited catalyst at the turn of the century.

Clayton, Ellen C. English Female Artists. London, 1876.
Without giving a political slant and without illustrating the text, Clayton nevertheless describes in detail the lives and works of the many English women artists since the 16th century.

Ellet, Elizabeth Fries Lummis. Women Artists in All Ages and Countries. New York, 1859.
Referred to by Sparrow as the first book on women painters. An impressive record of the personal experiences of women artists from ancient Greece onwards.

Elliott, Maud Howe, ed. Art and Handicraft in the Women’s Building of the World’s Columbian Exposition. Chicago, 1893. Paris, 1893.
An entire building 338 feet long designed by Sophia G. Haydn, woman architect, and decorated with murals by Mary Cassatt for an entire width, “afforded woman an unprecedented opportunity to present to the world a justification of her claims to be placed on complete equality with man.” Excellent photographs, reproductions of paintings, and histories of women in the arts.

Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. Woman’s Place. Berkeley, California, 1970.
After a close examination of women’s roles in our society, Epstein concludes: “only with a significant increase in their numbers in the male-dominated occupations and with the restructuring of expectations about woman’s place in society will women be able to work and compete with men freely at all levels of performance.” p. 204.

Furniss, Harry. Some Victorian Women, Good, Bad, and Indifferent. London, 1923.
The author’s own daughter scoffed his period sexism, exemplified by the following description of Kate Greenaway: “Clever woman though she was, and capable of keeping up a long correspondence with her admirer, the fastidious John Ruskin, yet she was hardly an ideal heroine. A ’homely woman’, used in the American sense, sums her up.” p. 87.

Ginzsberg, Eli, and Yohalen, Alice M. Educated American Women: Self-Portraits. New York, 1968.
Working women classified into four types: the planners, the recasters, the adapters, the unsettled. Emphasizes the strong individual differences between the various life styles of educated women. Details problems such as role conflict and discrimination by employers as well as the satisfaction afforded by a professional career.

Guhl, Ernst. Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte. Berlin, 1858.
An early volume on female artists through the 18th century.

Hatterer, Lawrence J. The Artist in Society: Problems and Treatment of the Creative Personality. New York, 1965.
Under the guise of summarizing the problems of the woman artist today in one chapter, Hatterer mouths the gospel of prejudice which warns his readers to stay clear of the monster sucking up “man’s creative fields.” Anti-artist as well as anti-woman.

Kirkland, Winifred. Girls Who Became Artists. New York, 1934.
Part of a series, including Girls Who Become Writers; Girls Who Become Leaders; Girls Who Made Good.

Klumpke, A. Rosa Bonheur, sa vie, son oeuvre. Paris, 1908.
A 445-page tribute, profusely illustrated and annotated, to a major artist.

Kollwitz, Hans, ed. Diary and Letters of Käthe Kollwitz, 1867–1945. Translated by Clara and Richard Winston. Chicago, 1955.
A moving account of the life and work of a woman absorbed in the pursuit of art. “Being a girl, I could not be admitted to the Academy.” p. 37.

Komarovsky, Mirra. Women in the Modern World. Boston, 1953.
“Learning the Feminine Role” (pp. 53–67) demonstrates ways in which an infant born female is raised to behave, feel, and think according to the role society assigns women.

Krasilovsky, Alexis Rafael. West Coast Women Artists’ Conference. Valencia, California, 1972. (Feminist Art Program, California Institute of Arts)
Pamphlet on the January 1972 conference attended by approximately 300 women, sharing Womanhouse, a feminist art history, their own paintings, sculptures, and films, and discussing feminist esthetics, consciousness-raising techniques, and political actions in the art world.

Mathey, Francois. Six femmes peintres: Berthe Mori-sot, Eva Gonzalès, Séraphine Louis, Suzanne Valadon, 75 Maria Blanchard, Marie Laurencin. Paris, 1951.
Despite its quality color reproductions of the work of women painters, the book is incredibly sexist. Not only does Mathey condemn female art as the art of imitation and as reserving for itself “the domain of exquisite and charming things where only children and fairies have access,” he condemns Vigée-Lebrun for escaping this domain in order to fight for equality with men. Let’s hope this is just a joke from “the domain of children and fairies.”

Mongan, Elizabeth. Berthe Morisot. New York, 1960.
This feminine rather than feminist biography of the artist includes many valuable anecdotes. E.g., Guichard, one of Morisot’s first teachers, said of her and her sister: “Your daughters . . . will become painters. Do you realize what that means? In your environment of the upper middle class this will be a revolution, I might almost say a catastrophe.” p.12.

Moore, Julia Gatlin, ed. History of the Detroit Society of Women Painters and Sculptors, 1903–1953. Detroit, 1953.
Published with the approval of the Detroit Society of Women Painters and Sculptors and by private subscriptions. The Detroit Society of Women Painters and Sculptors was organized on February 23, 1903 to promote a wider knowledge of art among its members and to stimulate them to active work by criticism and study. They held critical discussions much like the contemporary consciousness-raising groups and exhibited at the Detroit Museum of Art, as well as in New York and abroad. In the later years, the society crumbled into a sociable rather than an artistic enterprise.

Natanson, Thadée. Peints a leur tour. Paris, 1948.
“Femmes peintres” (pp. 219–225) describes several . French women artists in terms of their lack of rouge and powder, coquetry, and their reliance on great male artist relatives.

Neilson, Winthrop and Frances. Seven Women: Great Painters. Philadelphia, 1969.
Emphatic generalized argument for the ability of women to match men in creative ability; with individual essays on Angelica Kauffmann, Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Cecilia Beaux, Marie Laurencin, and Georgia O’Keeffe.

Parada y Santin, José. Las pintoras españolas, boceto histórico-biográfico y artistico. Madrid, 1902.
This thorough study of Spanish women artists throughout the centuries discusses both the women who for their excellence are worthy of consideration and fame, and the reasons (social emphasis on domestic roles, etc.) for the lack of contemporary Spanish women painters.

Rosenberg, Bernard, and Fliegel, Norris. The Vanguard Artist: Portrait and Self-Portrait. Chicago, 1965.
Rosenberg confines the woman artist and the black artist to separate ghettos, stressing in his chapter on women artists’ male chauvinism and role conflicts, and omitting women’s problems elsewhere. In a chapter devoted to the sexuality of artistic processes, for example, Rosenberg describes the erections that artists sometimes get while painting.

Skiles, Jacqueline, and McDevitt, Janet, eds. A Documentary Herstory of Women Artists in Revolution. New York, 1971. (Museum, 729 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10003)
Women Artists in Revolution (W.A.R.) shows in the most direct way possible its far-reaching network of actions in exhibitions, the press, the media, demonstrations, the Women’s Interart Center, and the art establishment.

Sparrow, Walter Shaw, Women Painters of the World. London, 1905.
Incredible wealth of illustrations and reproductions collected by a man who means well, despite his period chauvinism.

ToreIli, Vieri. Pittrici e scultrici italiane d’oggi. Rome, 1953.
ToreIli’s selections of work by Italian women painters and sculptors are not very original and have little in common with each other. Tasteful publishing product which is essentially useless.

Vachon, Marius. La Femme dans l’art, les protectrices des arts, les femmes artistes. 2 vols. Paris, 1893.
Dedicated to “the glorification of Woman, for the brilliant, fertile role which she has played in art, as muse to great geniuses, as model for masterpieces, as protectress of masters, and as artist.” A fertile angel hovers under the last paragraph of this immense work continuing the praise that Vasari, kings, and queens have lavished on women artists throughout the ages.

Vigée-Lebrun, Elisabeth. The Memoirs of Mme Elisabeth Louise Vigée-Lebrun. Translated by Gerard Shelley. London, 1926.
The Queen picked up her paints when Elisabeth was too far in pregnancy to stoop. These memoirs include many clever anecdotes of the guerilla tactics of a feminine feminist. “ ’With regard to the gentlemen, as soon as I realized they wished to make eyes at me, I painted them with their eyes averted, which prevents. the sitter from looking at the painter. At the least movement of their pupils in my directions, I would say, I’m doing the eyes.’”

Wayne, June. Sex Differentials in Art Exhibition Reviews: A Statistical Study. Tamarind Lithography Work- shop, Inc., Los Angeles, California, 1972.
Systematic sex discrimination toward women artists by United States media pointed up in an unprecedented survey. Scrupulously accurate charts delineate the facts.

Exhibition Catalogues:
Broun, Elizabeth and Gabhart, Ann. Old Mistresses: Women Artists of the Past. Baltimore, 1972.
Annotated checklist with short biographies of exhi-bition held at the Walters Art Gallery.

New York, N.Y. National Association of Women Artists. New York Annual Exhibitions. Vol. 1. 1932–36. Vol. 2. 1937–42.
Reproductions of amateurish work and addresses of all artists. Prizes were awarded in 1932 by an all-male jury, which may be one indication of why the association never got too far off the ground.

Ridgefield, Connecticut. The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art. 26 Contemporary Women Artists. April 18–June 13, 1971. Introduction by Lucy Lippard.
“I took on this show because I knew there were many women artists whose work was as good or better than that currently being shown, but who, because of the prevailing discriminatory policies of most galleries and museums, can rarely get anyone to visit their studios or take them as seriously as their male counterparts.”

Schapiro, Miriam, and Chicago, Judy, eds. Womanhouse: A Catalog. Valencia, California, forthcoming. (Feminist Art Program, California Institute of the Arts, McBean Parkway, Valencia, California 91355)