TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROACHING THE ABYSS: MONET’S ERA

“ALL GARDENING IS LANDSCAPE PAINTING.” The sentence is attributed to Alexander Pope, the reigning prince of 18th-century English poets. In 1719 at the age of 31, Pope moved 15 miles up the Thames from London to a riverfront property called Twickenham and resided there for his remaining 25 years. Digging an elaborate, shell-encrusted tunnel under Hampton Court Highroad, which divided his five-acre estate in two, he designed and constructed not a formal garden after Versailles but something in the new style of an English “romantic” garden. This vision of landscape can be traced variously to John Milton’s descriptions of the Garden of Eden in Paradise Lost, and to essays by William Temple, the Earl of Shaftesbury, and Joseph Addison. Pope himself was one of its principal instigators and theorists. In an irregular yet carefully laid-out design, he built walks, vistas, mounts (or little hills

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