TABLE OF CONTENTS

ESCHER OR NEWMAN: WHO PUTS THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE?

“May the universe in some strange sense be ‘brought into being’ by the participation of those who participate? . . . The vital act is the act of participation. ‘Participator’ is the incontrovertible new concept given by quantum mechanics. It strikes down the term ‘observer’ of classical theory, the man who stands safely behind the thick glass wall and watches what goes on without taking part. It can’t be done, quantum mechanics says.”

John Wheeler, as quoted by Gary Zukav in The Dancing Wu Li Masters.

EVEN IN THIS TIME OF populist tolerance, M.C. Escher is reflexively dismissed by artists. How can it be that the artist who is considered by scientists to best visually model their literally unspeakable propositions can be considered a failure as an artist? This question reveals the real issue: is painting just a system of representation?

The development of steam engines for ocean-going ships

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