TABLE OF CONTENTS

IN RECORD TIME: CHRISTIAN MARCLAY

I

SINCE THE BEGINNING of our century, music and its reproductive medium, the record, have constantly challenged artists to create new forms. László Moholy-Nagy saw the potential of scratching the wax plate to produce new sounds and sound relationships,1 and Piet Mondrian called for the creation of a new system of “tones and anti-tones” in order to achieve a “universal form.”2 When, in 1913, the Futurist Luigi Russolo issued his manifesto L’arte dei rumori (The art of noises), he set up one of the most crucial guideposts for avant-garde music.3 The inclusion of real noises—“the voices of animals and men,” “the coming and going of pistons,” “the crashing down of metal shop blinds,” etc.4—advocated by Russolo, became intrinsic to the work of composers like Edgard Varèse, Erik Satie, Igor Stravinsky, and George Antheil. However, it was John Cage who in the early ’50s first linked this innovative

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