TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

What was once seditious is now ubiquitous. If ninety years ago Marcel Duchamp infamously claimed the products of industry as his own and a half century later Donald Judd furthered this scandal by directly co-opting the language of manufacture, today artists employ the hands and machines of others so commonly as to scarcely draw notice. A cursory survey of contemporary galleries, biennials, and art magazines reveals that a vast preponderance of artworks in our time—like the two dozen apparently disparate examples arrayed here—involve outsourced labor, industrial processes, and custom fabrication. An artist might visit a specialized fabricator to realize a technologically ambitious project; or employ an in-house design and production team to engineer an elaborate construction; or turn to a craftsman to commission a bespoke object; or simply order a laser-cut placard, neon sign, or

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