Bernd Koberling

Annina Nosei

The first wave of “violent painters” from Berlin—Rainer Fetting, Helmut Middendorf, Salomé, and Bernd Zimmer—were of some interest, because they were so sophisticated in their use of style. They seemed to make references to a national culture (German Expressionism in particular), but did so in order to link that culture and its trappings in a provocative way to that of America of the ’60s by keying their allusions to color field and stain painting, Pop, performance, and rock ’n’ roll. The work came from Berlin, but attested to the Americanization of Europe in as sly a manner as possible by making fake American paintings in Europe (this in odd contrast to the work of some painters in New York, who want to make fake European paintings here).

Unfortunately the success of the younger Germans has encouraged their elders (who are often also their teachers) to present their wares over here as

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