Bruno Munari

Palazzo Reale

Bruno Munari, with his constant experimentation with an enormous range of materials and in all fields of art, has always worked somewhat outside the mainstream of Italian cultural currents. He uses the tools of technology, adapting them to his particular brand of disorder and to the fresh use of natural materials, which he often treats as if they were archaeological finds. This Milanese artist began his exuberant career in the late ’20s as part of the second period of Futurism, producing abstract paintings that focused on the relationship between color and geometric outline. These were followed by his Macchine inutili (Useless machines, 1933), sculptures hung from the ceiling, composed of small mechanical parts that move as a result of their precarious equilibrium. In 1945 he designed the Ora X (X hour), an alarm clock that, instead of hands, has transparent half-disks, one red and one

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