Zachęta National Gallery of Art

Formed in 1982, Gruppa (Ryszard Grzyb, Pawel Kowalewski, Jaroslaw Modzelewski, Wlodzimierz Pawlak, Marek Sobczyk, and Ryszard Wozniak) exhibited provocative paintings and drawings (including the collectively produced gigantic works on paper called papiery) staged numerous performances, and published its own bulletin. In 1989, Gruppa’s activity—strangely enough never based on a coherent program, came to an end with a work painted on a wooden billboard in front of an election center in Warsaw as an advertisement for Solidarity. Today, as the artists pursue their individual careers, the connections among them are only tenuous.

What originally distinguished the Gruppa members from other contemporary artists was not the style of their works, which was inspired by the German Neue Wilde and Italian transavanguardia and adopted by many young Polish artists; it was their overtly declared refusal to

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