James and John Whitney, “Five Film Exercises,” 1943-44 (Parts 2 and 3)

    James and John Whitney

    1943-44, 2:24 minutes

    The brothers John and James Whitney created their remarkable series of “Film Exercises” between 1943 and 1944. These films are visually based on modernist composition theory: The carefully varied permutations of form are manipulated with cut-out masks so that the image photographed is pure direct light, rather than the light reflected from drawings as in traditional animation.